1. The first realisation we had was that it is not necessary to display bible verses in the standard interlinear format wherein the Bible text and its translation are bound into the same cell so that the follow each other exactly as you read them. If you choose the font sizes carefully you can get a pretty close match between the Greek, Hebrew and English for any verse and the reader with a tiny amount of experience can make adjustments with his eye to see which Greek or Hebrew word goes with which English word. So we just place each translation directly under the other and each Greek or Hebrew text or parsing or Stems list directly under the line above and then adjust the point size of the letters to synchronize the lines to a point where the reader can easily see which word goes with which.
2. Synchronizing verse numbers. The Masoretic text has 23,213 verses in it whereas the KJV has 23,145 in the Old Testament. Most bible software ignores this and just gives you one verse in Hebrew with a completely different verse in English. That is not much use. So we decided to synchronize all verse numbers in the BHS/WLC/Masoretic text to the KJV in order that everything is truly interlinear. Verse numbers are not canonical so it matters not whether you synchronize to the Masoretic or one of the Greek NT codices or to any English translation. We chose to synchronise to the King James because it is the most widespread versification of the bible. The ASV uses the same verse list for example.
Here is how we synchronized the OT to the KJV...
BHS text of Num 25:19 moved to the start of Num 26:1
BHS text of 1Sa 21:1 moved to the end of 1Sa 20:42
BHS 1Sa 21 all verse numbers decreased by 1 (leaving 15 verses in chapter 21)
BHS 1Ki 18:34 first part up to pieces of wood, moved up to the end of 1Ki 18:33
BHS 1Ki 20:3 first part up to Ben Hadad, moved up to the end of 1Ki 20:2
BHS text of 1Ki 22:44 moved to the end of 1Ki 22:43
Rename BHS 1Ki 22:45-54 to be 1Ki 22:44-53
BHS text of 1Ch 12:5 moved to the end of 1Ch 12:4
Rename BHS 1Ch 12:6-41 to be 1Ch 5-40
BHS omits KJV Neh 7:68 (736 horses and 245 mules). We put Neh 7:68 back into the BHS as a blank verse.
Rename BHS Neh 7:68-72 to be Neh 7:69-73
BHS text of Psa 13:6 is split to make a 7th verse starting at: I will sing to the Lord
BHS text of Isa 63:19 is split so that its last 6 words (oh that you would rend the heavensů) become Isa 64:1
Rename BHS Isa 64:1-11 to be Isa 64:2-12
BHS verse numbering changes were as followsů
Rename BHS Gen 32:1 to be Gen 31:55 and decrease each remaining verse number of Gen 32 by 1 up to verse 32
Rename BHS Exo 7:26-29 to be Exo 8:1-4 and increase each remaining verse number of Exo 8 by 4 up to verse 32
Rename BHS Exo 21:37 to be Exo 22:1 and increase each remaining verse number of Exo 22 by 1 up to verse 31
Rename BHS Lev 5:20-26 to be Lev 6:1-7 and increase each remaining verse number of Lev 6 by 7 up to verse 30
Rename BHS Num 17:1-15 to be Num 16:36-50 and decrease each remaining verse number of Num 17 by 15 up to Num 17:13
Rename BHS Num 30:1 to be Num 29:40 and decrease each remaining verse number of Num 30 by 1 up to Num 30:16
Rename BHS Deu 13:1 to be Deu 12:32 and decrease each remaining verse number of Deu 13 by 1 up to Deu 13:18
Rename BHS Deu 23:1 to be Deu 22:30 and decrease each remaining verse number of Deu 23 by 1 up to Deu 23:25
Rename BHS Deu 28:69 to be Deu 29:1 and increase each remaining verse number of Deu 29 by 1 up to Deu 29:29
Rename BHS 1Sa 24:1 to be 1Sa 23:29 and decrease each remaining verse number of 1Sa 24 by 1 up to 1Sa 24:22
Rename BHS 2Sa 19:1 to be 2Sa 18:33 and decrease each remaining verse number of 2Sa 19 by 1 up to 2Sa 19:43
Rename BHS 1Ki 5:1-14 to be 1Ki 4:21-34 and decrease each remaining verse number of 1Ki 5 by 14 up to 1Ki 5:18
Rename BHS 2Ki 12:1 to be 2Ki 11:21 and decrease each remaining verse number of 2Ki 12 by 1 up to 2Ki 12:21
Rename BHS 1Ch 5:27-41 to be 1Ch 6:1-15 and increase each remaining verse number of 1Ch 6 by 15 up to 1Ch6:81
Rename BHS 2Ch 1:18 to be 2Ch 2:1 and increase each remaining verse number of 2Ch 2 by 1 up to 2Ch 2:18
Rename BHS 2Ch 13:23 to be 2Ch 14:1 and increase each remaining verse number of 2Ch 14 by 1 up to 2Ch 14:15
Rename BHS Neh 3:33-38 to be Neh 4:1-6 and increase each remaining verse number of Neh 4 by 6 up to Neh 4:23
Rename BHS Neh 10:1 to be Neh 9:38 and decrease each remaining verse number of Neh 10 by 1 up to Neh 10:39
Rename BHS Job 40:25-32 to be Job 41:1-8 and increase each remaining verse number of Job 41 by 8 up to Job 41:34
Rename BHS Ecc 4:17 to be Ecc 5:1 and increase each remaining verse number of Ecc 5 by 1 up to Ecc 5:20
Rename BHS Sol 7:1 to be Sol 6:13 and decrease each remaining verse number of Sol 7 by 1 up to Sol 7:13
Rename BHS Isa 8:23 to be Isa 9:1 and increase each remaining verse number of Isa 9 by 1 up to Isaiah 9:21
Rename BHS Jer 8:23 to be Jer 9:1 and increase each remaining verse number of Jer 9 by 1 up to Jer 9:26
Rename BHS Eze 21:1-5 to be Eze 20:45-49 and decrease each remaining verse number of Eze 21 by 5 to Eze 21:32
Rename BHS Dan 3:31-33 to be Dan 4:1-3 and increase each remaining verse number of Dan 4 by 3 up to Dan 4:37
Rename BHS Dan 6:1 to be Dan 5:31 and decrease each remaining verse number of Dan 6 by 1 up to Dan 6:28
Rename BHS Hos 2:1-2 to be Hos 1:10-11 and decrease each remaining verse number of Hos 2 by 2 up to Hos 2:23
Rename BHS Hos 12:1 to be Hos 11:12 and decrease each remaining verse number of Hos 12 by 1 up to Hos 12:14
Rename BHS Hos 14:1 to be Hos 13:16 and decrease each remaining verse number of Hos 14 by 1 up to Hos 14:9
Rename BHS Joel 3:1-5 to be Joel 2:28-32 and then Rename Joel 4:1-21 to be Joel 3:1-21
Rename BHS Jon 2:1 to be Jon 1:17 and decrease each remaining verse number of Jon 2 by 1 up to Jon 2:10
Rename BHS Mic 4:14 to be Mic 5:1 and increase each remaining verse number of Mic 5 by 1 up to Mic 5:15
Rename BHS Nah 2:1 to be Nah 1:15 and decrease each remaining verse number of Nah 2 by 1 up to Nah 2:13
Rename BHS Zec 2:1-4 to be Zec 1:18-21 and decrease each remaining verse number of Zec 2 by 4 up to Zec 2:13
Rename BHS Mal 3:19-24 to be Mal 4:1-6
Psalm introductions are not included in the verses of the KJV but are sometimes included and other times not included in the BHS. This results in the BHS having 67 more verses in Psalms than the KJV.
In the following Psalms the first verse in the BHS is an intro which is added to the beginning of the second verse in the BHS to make the first verse in the KJV. Then the remaining verse numbers in the Psalm are reduced by 1.
In these Psalms the first 2 verses in the BHS are the intro which are added to the beginning of the 3rd verse in the BHS to make the first verse in the KJV. Then the remaining verse numbers in the Psalm are reduced by 2.
51, 52, 54, 60.
Here is how we synchronized the NT to the
We have Acts 10 with 48 verses, Acts 19 with 40, 2Corinthians13 with 13, 3John with 15 and Revelation 12 with 18 in all bibles. This gives 7957 verses to the New Testament.
In the WHO, NWT and KIT texts we concatenate Acts 19:40 and Acts 19:41
We concatenate 2Corinthians 13:12 and 2Corinthians 13:13 and relabel 2Corinthians 13:14 to be 2Corinthians 13:13
We split 3John 14 into 2 verses so that the last word in verse 14 is speak lalesomen and the first word in verse 15 is peace eirhnh
We split Revelation 13:1 so that the first 7 Greek words (And it-stood upon the sand of-the sea) become Revelation 12:18.
These are the verses which are also need to be split and concatenated as above in various other bible versions to synchronize the verse enumerations to 9757 in each bible.
WHO has no entry for Matthew 17:21, Matthew 18:11, Matthew 23:14, Mark 7:16, Mark 9:44, Mark 9:46, Mark 11:26, Mark 15:28, Luke 17:36, Luke 23:17, John 5:4, Acts 8:37, Acts 15:34, Acts 24:7, Acts 28:29 and Romans 16:24.
BYZ has no entry for Luke 17:38, Acts 8:17, Acts 15:34, Acts 24:7, Romans 16:25-27. And has these extra 3 verses...
Rom 14:24 Tw/| de. duname,nw| u`ma/j sthri,xai kata. to. euvagge,lio,n mou kai. to. kh,rugma VIhsou/ cristou/( kata. avpoka,luyin musthri,ou cro,noij aivwni,oij sesighme,nou(
Rom 14:25 fanerwqe,ntoj de. nu/n( dia, te grafw/n profhtikw/n( katV evpitagh.n tou/ aivwni,ou qeou/( eivj u`pakoh.n pi,stewj eivj pa,nta ta. e;qnh gnwrisqe,ntoj(
Rom 14:26 mo,nw| sofw/| qew/|( dia. VIhsou/ cristou/( w-| h` do,xa eivj tou.j aivw/naj┼ VAmh,n┼
3. Reversing the order of the Hebrew words in their verses but not the order of the Hebrew letters in the words. This means that Hebrew words still read Right to Left as Hebrew words, but that the sentence itself reads from Left to Right. One cannot have an interlinear bible where the English reads Left to Right and the Hebrew reads Right to Left. The idea is that the words follow one another but on separate lines. The net result for Genesis 1:1 is as follows...
KJV In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.
ASV In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.
NWT In [the] beginning God created the heavens and the earth.
GLT In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth;
YLT In the beginning of God's preparing the heavens and the earth --
WLC tyviarEB. ar"B' ~yhilOa/ tae ~yIm;V'h; taew> #r<a'h'
GW ncfsa+p vqp3ms ncmpa o ncmpa+a o+c ncfsa+a
GW tyviarE┬B. arb ~yhilOa/ tae ~yIm;v'┬h; tae┬w> #r<a,┬h
We use 23 point for the Hebrew font (because the vowel pointing is not properly visible any smaller) and 12 point for the parsing with a double space between each code and then 10 point for the English translations. Once you have learned the basic prepositions (p) and conjunctions (c) and the object marker (o), you can match the codes to the Hebrew words without any difficulty. This form of interlinear presentation is not new to mankind. It is done on www.studybible.info
4. Schwingenschloegl Numbers. In the late 1800s James Strong published his Strong's Concordance. His revolutionary idea was to number all the stems in the Textus Receptus version of the Greek New Testament and in the Masoretic text (the BHS/WLC) of the old testament. His numbers for each unique stem enabled readers who were not familiar with classical Greek or Hebrew to find a word quickly in his dictionary. His idea took off and many copies of his concordance and lexicon were sold. However he deviated from his original premise and included Greek and Hebrew words and phrases that are not biblical stems. This is fine for the casual reader of his paper books but is rather unhelpful to a Greek or Hebrew novice who is trying to understand the language. Maurice Robinson, who is responsible for the stems and parsing of the Tischendorf, the Byzantine, the Westcott and Hort, and Scrivener and the Stephanus Greek texts, has a good critique of Strong's work at http://www.byztxt.com/download/index.html
So we decided to update Strong's numbers for the New Testament, by collating the Greek stems not merely from the Textus Receptus but actually from the following 7 Greek Texts: WHO, NA27, UBS4, BYZ, TIS, SCR STE. We deduped these to produce 5850 Greek Stems all of which were truly Greek stems. We then found that variant accenting for the same stem occured in 19 of these stems amongst the 7 Greek texts. So we removed the accenting from these 19 variants to remove ambiguity and to make matching to Lexicons work correctly. Here is the table showing the de-accenting decisions we made...
This left us with 5831 unique stems. We numbered these alphabetically from 1 to 5831 and we call these numbers Schwingenschoegl numbers for a bit of fun. Mike Schwingenschloegl was one of the people working on the project. We refer to these as L nos from the last letter of his name to avoid confusion with Strong's numbers. So there are 5624 Strong's numbers, 6068 Goodrick Kohlenberger numbers and 5831 Schwingenschloegl numbers. Bill Mounce has a great dictionary page relating Strong's to GK numbers at
However, with computer linking and html and good bible software, one does not really need these numbers much anymore.
Rather amazingly, once we had finished the project, we discovered that our numbering system matches Thayer's lexicon entries (when numbered) almost precisely. This must be because he made his lexicon in the same way that we chose to make our multi-lexicon (from all the available Greek NT codices. One can see this from his references to R G L T Tr WH R^elz R^bez R^st which are respectively the Greek texts of Textus-Receptus, Griesbach, Lachmann, Tischendorf, Tregelles (who produced the version of Gesenius' Lexicon that we use), Westcott and Hort (WHO), Textus Receptus of Elzevir, Textus Receptus of Beza and Textus Receptus of Stephanus. We have de-abbreviated most of these absurdly cryptic references in our version of his lexicon. Isn't it wonderful not to be restricted by printing costs! Mind you with text messaging today mankind has gone back to the days of diabolical over abbreviation!
5. Groves Wheeler Numbers. In the case of the Hebrew Old Testament there is really only one text. We have the BHS (Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia from the Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft in Stuttgart) and its mother, the Codex Leningradensis or Leningrad Codex. The digital form of the Leningrad Codex is called the Westminster Leningrad Codex (WLC) and is maintained by the J Alan Groves Centre at the Westminster Theological Seminary in Philadelphia. The BHS is also derived from the Leningrad codex which is the oldest complete old testament manuscript dating to 1008 or 1009 AD. This is not that old for biblical manuscripts. For example the recently discovered dead see scrolls have the entire book of Isaiah and date to just before Jesus. An older codex, the Aleppo codex half of which wnet missing around 1947 is used by DB in Stuttgart and many Hebrew scholars to correct the Leningrad Codex against. Hence there are slight differences between the WLC and the BHS. Both the BHS and the WLC are called 'the masoretic text' after the Masorah whose job was to copy the text from generation to generation. Perhaps if they had copied it a bit less we might have an older text today!
For the story of the WLC see http://www.wts.edu/resources/alangroves/grovesprojects.html.
Since there is really only one electronic text of the Old Testament and presently only really one morphology of that text, we took all the Groves Wheeler Stems and split them up in the case that they were two words joined together and deduped them to leave 8094 unique Hebrew stems of Old Testament bible words. We listed these stems in Hebrew alphabetical order and numbered them from 1 to 8094 These therefore are the Groves-Wheeler numbers (GWnos).
6. Greek Multi-Lexicons. In order to present all the best information that mankind has at one time to the reader we decided to combine Strong's Dictionary and Thayers Lexicon and the bible related entries in Liddell and Scott (4,690 out of 47,240 in Middle Liddell) into one 3 in 1 giant combined lexicon (absolutely nothing whatsoever to do with the false trinity doctrine of course). We did this by matching each entry in the 3 books to the 5831 Greek bible stems. So that instead of having 3 Lexicons with one entry per word you have one giant Lexicon with 3 entries per word. The result is amazingly powerful. We have produced a ThayerLiddellStrong Lexicon if you like.
7. Hebrew Multi Lexicon look up. These days one does not actually have to combine several lexicons in order to look up a word in them all at the same time. One can program a computer to search several separate lexicons and return the results for all of those searches on one page. This is what we did in the case of the Hebrew words using Strong's Dictionary, The Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament (TWOT) and Gesenius' Lexicon, as finished by Tregelles. Gesenius tragically died at Shin in his Lexicon. Tragelles did Tuv for him. Gesenius' word definitions are are the basis of Bed Davidson's Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon. But Moody Publishers of Chicago suddenly refused to licence us the TWOT (even though we had agreed the price etc.) once they discovered that we did not believe in the trinity! We pointed out that religious discrimination is a criminal offence in the UK - No response. So we cannot include the TWOT in the final versions of Bible Linguistics. Perhaps that is the will of Jehovah, who is a singular spirit as are all of his sons. If God was a trinity we would all be walking around in threesomes, since we are in his image. God, and Jesus, his son, and the holy spirit, his administration, his wife, his workforce, are united in one administration, which is one holy family, the royal family of the universe, yes. But they are not united in one being. So our triple Hebrew Lexicon became a double Hebrew Lexicon. Our trinity became a binity! And there are two Gods, Jehovah the uncreated father, and Jesus the only begotten God of John 1:18, the created God, the son who became a God due to his successful efforts to save mankind. He is our saviour and our eternal father. And Jehovah is his saviour and his eternal father.
May Jesus open Moody's eyes!
In fact we discovered that there were only 60 WLC Hebrew Stems which had an
entry in the TWOT but which were not directly defined either in Strong's
or Gesenius. We found that most of these were plurals or had the article
prefixed to them or were variant spellings etc. So with further research in the
Gesenius Lexicon and with the help of Ben Davidson's Analytic Hebrew and Chaldee
Lexicon which uses Gesenius' Lexicon for most of its word definitions but
sometimes present the info in a more digestible form, we added those 60 word as
new entries in the Gesenius Lexicon.